By James Wynbrandt
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Extra resources for A Brief History Of Saudi Arabia (Brief History)
Aleppo Samarkand Bukhara Tigris R Antioch R. to TOLIA us In d ANA Caspian Sea Gu lf d Re Sea Aydhab Medina Muscat Jeddah to India Mecca T AU M RA DH N ABYSSINIA Sanaa HA YEMEN Aden Dhofar Arabian Sea Land route 0 Sea route 500 miles to East Africa 0 500 kilometers Byzantine Empire Sassanid Empire Trade routes stretched across Arabia, allowing the flow of goods and ideas between ancient civilizations and bringing Arabia’s interior into contact with the outside world. 21 A BRIEF HISTORY OF SAUDI ARABIA history, they nonetheless have had a large impact on Arabia by providing portals through which goods and ideas from throughout the world entered the peninsula, enriching the isolated interior.
Where the people are described as desert nomads. Since accounts from both cultures refer to them as Arabs, it is likely this was the name they gave themselves, though its origin is unknown. Thereafter, “Arab” came to mean a nomadic desert dweller. The Hebrew Bible refers to “all the Arab kings” bringing tribute to King Solomon (ca. ), though the date of this writing is unknown. C. records a victory the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III achieved over a coalition that included “Gindibu the Arab” and his force of 1,000 camels.
D. Rome apparently garrisoned troops at Palmyra, in Syria, which previously policed the desert caravan routes on its own. Gradually, trade activity dwindled. Palmyra surpassed Nabataea as an overland trading center and seaborne trade around the peninsula 14 ARABIA: THE LAND AND ITS PRE-ISLAMIC HISTORY increasingly diminished the importance of the overland routes. D. The Arabs of the Interior Independent of the civilizations at its peripheries, a vibrant culture arose in the interior of the peninsula.