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A Comparative Atlas of Zooplankton: Biological Patterns in by Siebrecht van der Spoel, Robert Pieter Heyman (auth.)

By Siebrecht van der Spoel, Robert Pieter Heyman (auth.)

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Retieulata, 3 = P. apieifulva, 5 = Dakar Centre. F I G. 47 40 20 0 E 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 E 1 160 140 120 100 80 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~3q~~~~~~~~N ~--4---+-~~-4---+--~--4---+---~~---+--~--4---4---r-~---+--~--4---~60 The genus Peraclis (figs 59 & 60) provides an example of a group of species spread around one centre (faunal centre 8 in fig. 16). The present genus is chiefly mesoplanktonic but in the epiplanktonic genus Phronima exactly the same patterns are found. The Diacria quadridentata group seems to have spread from an Indo-Malayan Centre.

44 F I G. 55 Distribution of the species-group Clausocalanus arcuicornis. jobei, hatched = C. 5 6). F I G. 56 Distribution of the species-group Clausocalanus arcuicornis. farrani (see also fig. 55). F I G. 57 Distribution of the polytypic species Clio pyramidata. p. forma pyramidata, 2 = C. p. p. p. forma sulcata. ~~~~~~--J--~-~--+--+--+-~~~~~~ 80 ~~r-~~~~T-~--~--T-~--~--T--T--~--~~--~~EZr--T--~--r--1180 ~~~~~30ckI3~kI~~~~~~dO~~~~~~~~S 45 40 20 0 E 20 40 60 80 100 1 20 140 160 E 180 160 140 1 20 100 ~~~~~~~~qu~~~qu~OC~~~~~~~~~~~~N 80 o 20 40 ~--4---+---~-4---+--~--~--4---+-~~~---+--~--~--+---~~---+--~--~ 60 The species-group Eucalanus hyalinus (fig.

The disjunction in this species is in all probability the result of the closure of the Panama Isthmus. Pacific population which may be due to the extreme adaptation of the species in this area to waters of very low oxygen concentrations. ~ 20 r+--~--r-~--~80 ~~~Dd~~dc~~~~~~"~od~~~~~od~~~s OE 20 40 160 1 40 1 20 100 80 20 ~--+-~~~~+--4--~--+--4--~--+--+--~--+--+---r--+--+--~--r-~ 60 ~~~~~~t--t--r--r~--i--t--t--t~~-I~,~~-t--t--t~80 ~~~~~~~od~3aCk~DC"30~~dE~~~~DC"30~S 49 The taxa whose zoogeography has been discussed so far, are to be divided into four large groups: a) the taxa with continuous variation either in north-south or in eastwest directions, or in both, b) the taxa which already developed discontinuous variation, which gave rise to mostly allopatric taxa (the species-groups), c) the taxa of the species level grouped around a faunal centre, such as Peraclis species and d) the taxa which have been split into disjunct patterns by isolation.

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