By Kerson Huang
This fascinating publication presents the actual and mathematical history for a conception describing the universe as a quantum superfluid, and the way darkish strength and darkish subject come up. proposing a singular idea spanning many various fields in physics, the foremost suggestions in each one box are introduced.The reader is simply anticipated to understand the rudiments of condensed subject physics, quantum box thought and basic relativity to discover this interesting new version of darkish subject and darkish power as points of a cosmic superfluid.
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2 The Goldstone modes with ω = ck are split into “optical” and “acoustical” branches by gravity. The order parameter will clump into patches of size L0 ; but under present conditions in the universe, L0 is much larger than the radius of the universe. 6 Non-relativistic limit In the non-relativistic limit, φ has a large frequency ω corresponding to σ = ωt. This gives a mass scale mc2 = h¯ ω. The relativistic ﬁeld contains both signs of the frequency: φ = e−iωt Ψ+ + eiωt Ψ− , and the second term can be neglected when ω is large.