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Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles And Radioactive Waste by Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development

By Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development

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7. E+04 MOX-Np Fission prod. 7 shows that the large heat reduction potential of the fast-spectrum systems cannot be exploited unless the heat from the fission products is mitigated in parallel. In practice, this means that reduction in the initial heat load of a repository can only be achieved by considerably increasing the waste cooling time and/or combining actinide transmutation methods with suitable fission product separation and management methods as, for example, in the ORIENT4 fuel cycle [21].

The characteristics of the HLW during storage were calculated by means of the CESAR code [18]. Applying actinide decay chains with about 100 isotopes from 206Pb to 257Fm, this code calculates quantities such as activity, decay heat, neutron source strength, and radiotoxicity up to one million years. The library of the code includes 208 explicit fission products from 72Zn to 166mHo and 125 activation products. CESAR is particularly suited for this application because it accounts for the necessary number of explicit fission products for accurately predicting activity and decay heat, and can deal with the spontaneous fissions in californium which contributes significantly to the neutron emission of multi-recycled minor actinide fuels.

Conf. on Recycling, Conditioning and Disposal (RECOD 98), 25-28 October 1998, Nice, France, p. 986. [19] Cometto, M. (2002), Standardisation des outils de calcul pour les ADS et leur application à différents scénarios de transmutation des déchets, PhD thesis No. 2714, EPFL, Lausanne. [20] González, E. et al. (2001), “TRU transmutation studies for phase-out scenarios based on fast neutron ADS systems”, Presented on the ADTTA 2001, Nuclear Applications in the New Millennium, Reno, Nevada, 11-15 November 2001.

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