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An Economic History of Nineteenth-Century Europe: Diversity by Ivan Berend

By Ivan Berend

Why did a few nations and areas of Europe achieve excessive degrees of monetary development within the 19th century, whereas others have been left in the back of? This new transnational survey of the continent's financial improvement highlights the position of nearby changes in shaping every one country's monetary direction and consequence. providing a transparent and cogent clarification of the ancient motives of development and backwardness, Ivan Berend integrates social, political, institutional and cultural elements in addition to accomplishing debates concerning the relative roles of information, the country and associations. that includes boxed essays on key personalities together with Adam Smith, Friedrich record, Gustave Eiffel and the Krupp family members, in addition to short histories of strategies resembling the steam engine, vaccinations and the co-operative method, the booklet is helping to provide an explanation for the theories and macro-economic developments that ruled the century and their effect at the next improvement of the ecu financial system correct as much as the current day.

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In 1769, when James Watt patented the first modern steam engine heralding a new industrial age? “Deep is the well of the past. ” quips Thomas Mann so memorably in Joseph and his Brothers (Mann, 2005, 1). Indeed, one may place the starting date of those monumental changes even farther back, at the discovery of America by Europeans and the beginning of the building of colonial and commercial empires that paved the way for industrial capitalism. One might choose as the starting point the victory of Protestantism, the scientific revolution from Galileo to Newton, and the emergence of the Enlightenment.

Excise consumer taxes and direct taxation (poll tax, property tax) provided huge revenues for the state. 16 To finance a series of wars, Britain also adopted the Dutch public debt system. When William of Orange was elevated to the English throne in 1689, he “introduced the well-tried financial techniques” of the Dutch Republic.

From that time on a huge literature covered this topic. One of the most widespread popularizations was achieved by Immanuel Wallerstein (1974). See an excellent theoretical handling of the history of the concept in Love (1996). “It is inexact to talk of England and the Continent rather than, say, of Lancashire and the Valley of the Sambre-Meuse. Each country was made up only by a number of regional economies” (Wrigley, 1962, 16). Pollard similarly stated: “Industrialization in Britain was by no means a .

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