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Analysis of Distance Protection by V Cook

By V Cook

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During the site inspection, geotechnical data should be obtained by observation of natural exposure and soil sampling with hand augers or machine bore holes. A careful look out should be maintained for slope stability indicators (such as bent trees) or hummocky ground and surface irregularities that indicate previous ground movement. Investigations should be coordinated by an experienced engineering geologist or geotechnical engineer and make use of onsite soil testing (scala penetrometer, shear vanes, soil classification and grading) and laboratory testing of samples for larger canals.

This is a big risk in the first few years because of initial operating problems and, possibly, a series of dry years. The enterprise cash flow also provides the basis for preparation of forecast financial and economic statements that are often needed to support project financing proposals. Chapter 4 Detailed design of intake works, canals and penstocks Once funding has been secured, detailed design commences. Exactly how much detail design is needed at the pre-tender stage depends on the type of contract that is envisaged.

If the station is feeding an isolated load, the study needs to establish the shape of the daily load curve so that the amount of the energy available that can be absorbed by the load can be established. These calculations will show if daily storage is needed to meet peak demands. Another option is to establish a system for peak load control that, for instance, uses timers to switch off electric water heaters and other nonessential loads during peak demand periods. If the scheme will be selling into a market where the price varies over the year according to supply and demand, the hydrological and financial analysis must include consideration of seasonal generation against seasonal prices.

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