By Pramod R. Bhave
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Extra info for Analysis of Flow in Water Distribution Networks
3 HYDRAULIC AND ENERGY GRADE LINES If at each point along a pipeline, the pressure head ply is plotted as a vertical distance above the centre line, the locus of end points gives the pressure head line or the hydraulic grade line, HGL. More generally, it is the plot of the piezometric head Z + (p/y) above a convenient datum against length along the pipe. It is, therefore, sometimes known as the piezometric line. , when the gauge pressure is positive, the HGL is above the centre line of the pipe.
For water distribution networks, however, only the energy that is available and therefore useful is considered. Since other forms of energy cannot be used, if the available energy is converted to any other form, the energy is considered as lost. For example, in a flowing mass of water, part of the available energy may be converted into thermal energy due to internal friction. Such a conversion is considered a loss of energy. The available energy of a fluid is proportional to its mass, and therefore it is common to express energy, per unit mass or per unit weight.
Values of Hazen-Williams Coefficient for Clean New Pipes of Different Materials. 5. Correction Factors for Hazen-Williams Coefficients. 3 m and S = 1/1000, it is used by design engineers over wide ranges of diameters and friction slopes. This may result in an error as high as ± 3 0 percent in the evaluation of the velocity of flow . Therefore, after comparing the HW formula with the rational and dimensionally homogeneous DarcyWeisbach formula, Jain, Mohan, and Khanna  modified the HW formula.