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Sleep in Children and Sleep and Breathing in Children: by Carole Marcus, John L. Carroll, David Donnelly, Gerald M.

By Carole Marcus, John L. Carroll, David Donnelly, Gerald M. Loughlin

Infants and kids spend one- to two-thirds in their lifestyles asleep. regardless of this, little or no awareness has been paid to realizing either common sleep and sleep-related abnormalities in the course of baby improvement. There are profound adjustments in sleep and circadian rhythm in the course of development and maturation. Sleep is especially vital in young children, as a result of its putative position in consolidating reminiscence and different neurocognitive functions.

Sleep in Children:

  • explores common alterations in sleep in the course of pediatric improvement, and examines vital behavioral elements of sleep, cultural results on sleep, and non-respiratory sleep-related disorders
  • includes a piece dedicated to new concepts which are at the moment getting used in sleep-related research
  • discusses the present learn in the box of pediatric sleep disorders
  • outlines a destiny framework for the advance and research of early life sleep disorders

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Sleep in Children and Sleep and Breathing in Children: Developmental Changes in Sleep Patterns

Babies and kids spend one- to two-thirds in their lifestyles asleep. regardless of this, little or no recognition has been paid to figuring out either general sleep and sleep-related abnormalities in the course of baby improvement. There are profound adjustments in sleep and circadian rhythm in the course of development and maturation. Sleep is very vital in youngsters, because of its putative position in consolidating reminiscence and different neurocognitive services.

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Additional info for Sleep in Children and Sleep and Breathing in Children: Developmental Changes in Sleep Patterns

Sample text

In a study involving the simultaneous use of three real-time ultrasound scanners, Okai et al. (83) documented stable periods of REM and NREM of more than three minutes’ duration between 28 and 31 weeks GA and also found a strong correlation between the occurrence of rapid eye movements and breathing movements after 27 weeks GA. 12 Curzi-Dascalova et al. Fetal behavior is characterized by state-specific patterns of complex motor activity (80) and by ‘‘breathing’’ movements that occur mainly during state 2F or REM sleep.

Fetal states are independent of maternal behavioral states (86). Groom et al. (87) studied 30 low-risk fetuses at 38 to 40 weeks GA and again at about 2 weeks postnatal age. Behavioral states were assigned similarly on the basis of the HR pattern and the presence or absence of eye and gross body movements. The proportions of active, quiet, and indeterminate sleep were virtually identical in fetuses and neonates. Studies involving monitoring of fetal EEG activity and heart rate variability recording in healthy fetuses during normal labor demonstrated two alternating sleep states identical to those observed in newborns (88,89).

However, at three weeks of age, the amount of REM sleep in kittens, rat pups, and guinea pig pups remains twice that in adult animals (63). REM sleep in rats continues to decline between 23 and 40 days of age (79). In conclusion, the first steps of the differentiation of behavioral states seem dependent on the degree of brain maturation; in several species characterized by greater brain maturity at birth, concordance between REM and NREM state characteristics may be established during fetal life or during the first few days after birth.

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